Lake Baikal - is a lake in Eastern Siberia, the maximum depth is more than 1600 metres, the length of Lake Baikal is 636 km, the width is from 25 to 80 km. There is the Olkhon island near the northwest shore of lake Baikal. Olkhon is the heart of ancient stories and historical legendaries.
The territory of the Katangsky District is located on the Middle-Siberian Plateau. The district lies north and south 58° N to 64° N, west and east from 140° E to 110° E. The landscape is represented by a billowy plateau, but the territory of the New Tungusska abounds in Siberian volcanogenic trapps include bald mountains, rocks, ridges.
The climate of the Katangsky District is strongly continental, winter is long and hard from November to April, and summer is short and hot from June to August. The temperature reaches -57, -59C in December, sometimes -60. Average range of December temperature is about 80.
Annual precipitation is small and annual fluctuations of precipitation in different years are within 300 mm per year which are irregularly distributed according to seasons: there are dry winters and moist summers and vice versa. The climate is mostly unfavorable for agriculture because of short summer and early frosts which prevent vegetables and bread crops from ripening. First snow falls in the second half of September, sometimes in the first half, and snow descends to the middle of May.
Permafrost caused by lack of warmth adversely affects soils, mainly mountain-podzolic and loam soils preventing them from flushing. The southern part of the Katangsky District and lands around the river-bed in the river-valley are more favorable for agriculture.
The main river artery river cutting through the territory of the Katangsky District to northbound is the Lower Tunguska River, the most copious tributary of the Yenisei River, the length of the Lower Tunguska River is 1500 km. A lot of its tributaries such as the Nepa, Teteya, Erema, three Kochema Rivers and others, precipitations, snow patches thawing towards summer and permafrost feed into the Lower Tunguska River. Freeze up occurs around the middle of October and the break up around the middle of May.
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