Lake Baikal - is a lake in Eastern Siberia, the maximum depth is more than 1600 metres, the length of Lake Baikal is 636 km, the width is from 25 to 80 km. There is the Olkhon island near the northwest shore of lake Baikal. Olkhon is the heart of ancient stories and historical legendaries.
Rabochee is an outskirts of Irkutsk. In 1799 the Worker’s or Craft House was opened near the Sarafanovka River and over the Ushakovka River. There were built different handicraft manufactures around the Worker’s House. As a result, the worker’s settlement was appeared near manufactures. The settlement had been named as the Borisoglebskaya Sloboda (Quarter) after Saint Boris and Gleb for a while. Growing worker’s population gave the name of this district: Rabochee (Worker’s) outskirts.
Rassokha is an urban-type settlement of subordination of Shelikhov. This settlement is located in a “rassokha” (in Siberian dialect), a conjunction of the Big Olkhinka and the Small Olkhinka Rivers, tributaries of the Irkut River.
Rytyi is a cape in the north-west of lake Baikal. The name came from the last century. This word means “delve”. There is, indeed, a very deep underwater depression between shore mountains and the Akademichesky submerged ridge.
Paberega is villages of the Tulunsky District of Irkutsk Region on the shores of the Oka River, the Iya River and others. It comes from Russian word “pabereg” (an offshore coastal strip which crops out at medium or low water level).
Padun is an urban-type settlement of the Bratsky District of Irkutsk Region. The word “Padun” derives from Russian verb “padat’” (fall) and means “waterfall”, “river rift” in Siberia. This word became a proper noun for the Padun or Padunsky Rift, a powerful and rough rift of the Angara River. This name was given by Russian path-finders in 17th century. Maxim Perfiliev wrote: “The third rift Padun is close to Bratsk uluses. It is hard to climb the rift. It seems to climb up a mountain.”. It has significant height for water to fall, a narrow riverbed up to 800 metres and a bottom composed of massive crystalline rocks. All these characteristics made possible the construction of one of the biggest hydroelectric power stations in the world -the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station. Today the place of the Padun narrowing and the Padun Rift is the deepest point of the Bratsk Sea. The first settlement, the Bratskt i.e.Buraytsky Ostrog (fortress) was built in 1631 near the Padun Rift. The second ostrog with the same name was built on the site of old Bratsk which disappeared after the formation of the Bratsk Sea in 1654. There used to be a small old settlement Padun near the Padunsky Rift.
Peschanaya Bay (“Sandy Bay”) is located on the western shore of Lake Baikal, 100 km from the mouth of the Angara River. It is one of the most picturesque places on Lake Baikal. There are a lot of wonderful sandy beaches. The coast of the Peschanaya Bay has a shape of semicircle. Tourists and guides love this place. There are “Peschanka” guest house, Baikal Dunes recreation centre.
Pisanye Islands or Kamennye Islands are located on the Angara River near Podvolochnoe village. There were caves on the islands where were drawings of primitive artists: a head of elk, fish, hunting-scenes. It gave the name of the islands but, unfortunately, the islands were flooded by the Bratsk Reservoir.
Podvoloshino is a village of the Katangsky District of Irkutsk Region located on the shore of the Lower Tunguska. The other spelling is Podvolochnoe. This settlement was founded at the place where the Chechuysky skid road connects the Lower Tunguska and Lena Rivers.
Pokhabikha is a river on the sothern shore of Baikal near Kultuk named after a Russian path-finder Ivan Pokhabov organized an expedition to Lake Baikal in 1647 and built the Kultuksky ostrog (fortress).
Pokoyniki or Pokoynitsky Cape, River and stow are located on the north-western shore of Lake Baikal. The explanations of this word are different and contradictory. Some people say because there are some graves with crosses, other people say because here is a smooth sea (old-Russian word “pokoynyi” means “smooth”). It may also derive from word “dead men” (“pokoyniki” in Russian).
Postoyannyi was an urban-type settlement near Bratsk. It was founded near the Padun Rift on the Angara River during the construction of the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station. This settlement was built on the flood-free shore as a constant settlement as opposed to other settlements near the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Station. Today this settlement has become a part of Bratsk.
Pursei is a cape in the Bratsk Sea, a constituent of rock rised obove the Padunsky Rift. This place and the waterfall precipitating from a high rock down called Tur in old pictures. There was the Tursei River flows nearby. The name Pursei was never registered in any documents. It is difficult to say now what the connection between two names is. Both names are not deciphered well.
Pyanyi is a rift on the Angara River. N. Spafariy wrote about the origin of this word in 1675: “This rift is called Pyanyi because of a drunken root. If a man eats a zolotnik (4.27 grams) or one and half of zolotnik he can be drunk for a day and more naughty than any drinker”. This Spafariy’s explanation is not confirmed. Such kinde of plant doesn’t grow on this territory. The origin of the names Pyanyi, Pokhmelnyi, Pyanyi Byk is connected with navigators who were exhausted and felt drunk after navigation across the Padun Rift. They felt drunk or the feast after difficult navigation. There is another name on the ancient maps: Pyanovsky, it may be a personal name.
Khabarov is name of a village of the Kirensky District of Irkutsk Region named after Russian explorer Y.P. Khabarov who lived in 17th century and was known for his activity in the Sis-Lena and Cis-Amur Areas. Khabarovsk City on the Amur River is named after him.
Khadakhan is the name of the ulus (the inhabited locality type of Buryats) of the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. The Buryat name “Khan-yan”, remade by Russians into “ Khadakhan”, derives from the name of one of the ansistors of local Buryats Khan-Yan-Khun. This ulus was formerly located on the Osinsky Island of the Angara River. This settlement has been located on the shore of the Bratsk Sea since 1963.
Khaita is the name of the river and the village of the Cheremkhovsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name came from Turkic word “khai” (“rock”) and the Buryat suffix “-ta” which means “a rocky place”.
Khalyuta is a name of a stow of the Ust-Udinsky District of Irkutsk Region, its name cames from Buryat word “khaluyun” (“otter ”), “khaluyuta” (“otter’s habitat”).
Khamar-Daban is a mountain ridge of Sisbaikalia. “Khamar” means “a nose” and “daban” means “high clamber”, “a mountain pass” , “a mountain” in Buryat, i.e. “nose-mountain”. There is another explanation of “khamardaban”: “a mountain of siberian pines”. The last meaning is close to reality because there are a lot of Siberian pines. But this etymology of the word has no scientific basis. Firstly, the name of Khamar-Daban refered to a small mountain pass near the Shaman Cape (now the Pereval) that has a shape of a human nose. Then this name was given to the whole mountain system.
Kharagun is the name of rivers, stows and settlements of the Ziminsky District of Irkutsk Region, the Bokhansky District of Irkutsk Region, the Zalarinsky District of Irkutsk Region, the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District of Irkutsk Region and others. The name derives from Buryat word “khara” (black) and “ugun or ugan” (water) i.e. it means “black water”, nonfreezing streams and rivers with ice-holes in winter; sometimes it means “clean, healthy and healing water”.
Kharazargai ] is the name of the ulus (the inhabited locality type of Buryats) of the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District of Irkutsk Region. “Khara” means “black” and “azarga” means “stallion” in Buryat. It is difficult to explain why the settlement got this name. This is more likely the name of some man. Names in Buryat name-study which derive from names of animals are widespread. For instance, “khoso” means a ram, “tekhe” means a goat, “bukha” means a bull, “azarga” means a stallion and etc.
Khargino is the name of the river, the bay, the settlement and the area located on the north-western shore of Lake Baikal and in the Irkutsky District of Irkutsk Region. It came from the term “karga”. In the Khargino Area there are a lot of white sand deposits which are good for glass industry.
Kharik is a village of the Kuytunsky District of Irkutsk Region. It derived from Buryat words “khair” (sandbank) and “khairik” (grinding sand stone). There are sandstone deposits in the Kharik area and the Kharik River flows in a sand channel.
Kheltygei is the name of several islands in the Maloe More and other parts of Lake Baikal. The Buryat word “kheltege” means “sloping hillside”. Because of special tectonic features islands, peninsulas and some capes on the western shore of Lake Baikal are sloped on one side and sharply upturned on the other side. The spelling “Kyltygei” or “Koltygei” is wrong.
Kher is the name of areas near Buryat settlements. “Khere” means “steppe”, “heath”, “meadow” in Buryat. This word is often combined with adjectives and different new words are formed, e.g. Sagan-Kher –“white steppe”, Ungeto-Kher –“steppe full of flowers.
Kher-Khushun is a cape on the Maloe More. “Khere” means “steppe” and “khushun” means “cape” in Buryat. There is wrong transcription “Khyrkhu-Shun” on maps.
Khidusa is a river, a tributary of the Buguldeika River, the pass between the Buguldeika River basin and the Lena River basin. The name comes from Buryat word “khidusa” or “sudasa” (a war battle). According to Buryat legend there were war battles between Buryats and their enemies on this pass called Khidusyn-Daban, “a battle pass”.
Khoboi is the most the most northern cape of the Olkhon Island. “Khoboi” means “a fang, a molar” and metaphorically “a hanger” in Buryat. The form of the cape really bears resemblance to a fang.
Khogot is the name of the ulus (the inhabited locality type of Buryats) of the Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District of Irkutsk Region. “Khogoto” means “Siberian stag inhabit” in Buryat or it comes from the name of herb “khogon” that grows on tussocks.
Khomutovo is a village of the Irkutsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name comes from the Evenki word “khomoty”(a bear, a bear inhabit). There were a lot of bears here, in the basin of the Goloustnaya River, the Khomuty stow and also near Irkutsk. The Khomutovskaya Sloboda (settlement) was founded in 1685.
Khrebtovaya is the name of the village and the Khrebtovsky local council in the Nizhneilimsky District of Irkutsk Region. The settlement was built near the railway station of the Tayshet-Lena Railway and a pass across the Ilimsky mountain ridge. The new Khrebtovaya-Ust-Ilim Railway in the course of construction from this station.
Khudoelanskoe is a village of the Nizhneudinsky District of Irkutsk Region. Firstly this village was called “Yelan’” (forest opening or meadow). The name “KhudoYelan’” was likely to come from bad quality of soil, bogginess. “Khudo” means “bad” in Russian.
Khuzhir is an urban-type settlement on the Olkhon Island which gives the name of many settlements and areas in Irkutsk Region. It means “saline, saline-alkali soil” in Buryat, a land covered with white coating.
Ekhirit-Bulagatsky District of Irkutsk Region is named after two main Buryat tribes: the Ekhirits mentioned in the “Secret History of the Mongols” at the beginning of the 13th century and the Bulagats mentioned in “Rashid ad-Din’s Chronicles” in the 14th century. These tribes were Mongolian-speaking tribes lived in remote mountain valleys and woods of Cisbaikalia. The ethnicon “Bulagat” or “Bulagachiny” means “sable hunters”. The ethnicon “Ekhirit” is not deciphered well, but mentioned in the “Secret History of the Mongols” in 1240: “The following tribes came to us: Batu from Ikires tribe who was a son-in-law of the headman”. It is believed that “ikhir” or “ekhir” means “a clone”, “twins”. “Ekhirid” is plural forn from “ekhir”.
Chechuysk is a village of the Kirensky District of Irkutsk Region. This settlement firstly was founde as the Chechuysky ostrog (fortress) in 17th century on the Lena River at the end of the Chechuysky skid road connected the Lower Tunguska and Lena Rivers. The first man who passed this skid road was Penda, the Russian pathfinder and discoverer of the Lena River. The settlement had 11 homesteads in 1723. The word “chehu”, “chochu” came from Yakut word “grindstone”.
Chekanovsky is a worker’s settlement in the Bratsky District of Irkutsk Region. The settlement was renamed in 1963 after Polish-born Russian scientist, geologist, geographer, explorer of Eastern Siberia A.L.Chekanovsky (1932 - 1876) exiled in Siberia exiled to Siberia for participation in the Polish revolt of 1863.
Cheremkhovo is a town of the Cheremkhovsky District of Irkutsk Region. The old trakt village Cheremkhovskoe was founded in a creek valley of the Cheremkhovka or Cheremushka River wherea lot of bird cherry trees grow (bird cherry tree means “cheremukha” in Russian). The river ran dry and bird cherry trees disappear, but the name was reserved. There is another name of Cheremkhovo kept by the Buryats. This name is “Arangata” which means “platform” where dead shamans and patriarchs were put.
Cheremshanka is the name of many stows and settlements in the Bratsky District of Irkutsk Region, the Zalarinsky District of Irkutsk Region, the Ziminsky District of Irkutsk Region, the Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Region and others. The name comes from the name of the Siberian plant cheremsha.
Chernaya is the river, a tributary of the Kirenga River. The name derives from the colour of river pebbles covered by black coating – manganese ore hydroxide.
Chernorud gave the name of the Chernorudsky local council of the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. These seemingly traditional Russian are non-Russian by origin. The Buryat of shono clan (“shono” means “wolf” in Buryat, clan means “rod” in Russian) lived here. Firstly, the name “Shenorod” (clan of wolves) was corrupted as “Shenorod”, “Chernorod” and then as “Chernorud”.
Chuguevo is a village of the Kirensky District of Irkutsk Region. The village was named by the locals after their motherhood, Ukrainian village Chuguevo. The founder was M.O. Chuguevsky exiled on the Lena Rive with Zaporizhzhya inhabitants. The village firstly mentioned in documents since 1665.
Chyertovo is a lake in the valley of the Irkut River near the Sinyushina Hill. This small lake got the name not from the word “devil” (“chyert” in Russian), but from the word “line, boundary” (“cherta” in Russian). The lake used to serve as the boundary between rural lands (Cossack meadows) and urban lands.
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