Lake Baikal - is a lake in Eastern Siberia, the maximum depth is more than 1600 metres, the length of Lake Baikal is 636 km, the width is from 25 to 80 km. There is the Olkhon island near the northwest shore of lake Baikal. Olkhon is the heart of ancient stories and historical legendaries.
Yada is a village of the Kuytunsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from the Buryat word “yadaa or yaduu” which means “poor, weak”. There is the legend of local Russians with relation to the origin of this word. “ One day a part of the Yermak Cossacks lost behind, went in circles and finally reached the shore of the Oka River. They were thin, shabby, hungry people. When they saw the river, they caught fish, cooked fish soup with salt and ate as much as one can hold. And then the Cossacks said “What a delicious meal (yada in Od Russian)”. That’s the origin of the word Yada”. But as you know this story is an entire fabrication.
Yalga is a stow in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region.
Yamat is an ulus (an inhabited locality type of Buryats) of the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name came from the Buryat word “yaman”( a female goat) and “yamat” (goat inhabitat).
Yandy is a stow in the Ust-Udinsky District of Irkutsk Region. “yandy” or “yandy-mi” means “quack” in Evenki, i.e. Yandy is the former place for shaman rituals. Before the creation of the Bratsk Reservoir there was Yandy settlement founded in the 17th century.
Yasachnaya is the name of many settlements where locals such as Buryats, Evenkis and mixed Russians live. They called “yasachnye” i.e. the locals who paid tax (“yasak”). This word has the same meaning as “krymskoe”. The locals of such settlements have facial characteristics indicating mixed Russian-Buryat or Russian-Evenkis origin.
Yurty is a worker’s settlement of the Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Region.The name has the Tartar Mongol origin. It comes from “yurta” which means firstly “possess”, “area”, “clan unification” an then “dwelling”. The last meaning is admitted by Russian scientists. There appear to be yurtas (dwellings) belonged to nomadic tribes such as Kotts or Buryats.
Ubusa is the name of the ulus, the river, a tributary of the Osa River and the Obusinsky local council in the Bokhansky District of Irkutsk Region- according to local Buryats the origin of this word is Mongolian word “ubusa” which means “hay”. This is probably mix of Buryat word “us” (water) and Pre-Buryat toponym “ub”, “ob” – “ub-usa” or “ob-usa”. Toponyms “ob, ob’” are widely spread on the territory of Irkutsk Region.
Uda is a tributary of the Selenga River. It is believed that the origin of the word stems from the name of Merkit tribe Ude (Udeit) lived in Western Transbaikalia alon the Orkhon and Selenga Rivers in the 17th century. Some scientists think that the name came from Mongolian word “ude” (midday). Other scientists think that the name came from Selkup word “ud” (water). Names from the stem “ud”, “uda” are widely spread from the Pacific shore to Western Europe.
Ukhan is the name of the cape on the Olkhon Island. The name comes from the Buryat word “ukhaa” which means “light chestnut”, “auburn”, “speckled”. This rocky cape is named for the colour of composed rocks.
Ukyr is the name of the village and the Ukyrsky local council in the Bokhansky District of Irkutsk Region, it comes from the Ukyr Mountain located in the Kuda River Valley. The word “Ukyr” comes from Buryat word “ukher”. There is a Buryat clan – Ukher-Sharalday.
Ulan-Khargana is located in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. It means “red bush” in Buryat language i.e a red-osiered ground.
Ulan-Khuzhir is located in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. It means “red saline land” in Buryat language because rust appears on the surface during the process of specular ore oxidation.
Under-Khuan is located in the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. It means “high birch grove” in Buryat i.e a lot of birch trees which grow in the high place. Unfortunately the birch grove has almost completely been cleared.
Uralo-Klyuchi is an urban-type settlement of the Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Region located on the nameless separating ridge between Klyuchi village situated near a head of river which flows to the north and Ural village situated near a head of river which flows to the south. The first settlement was the railway station “Soedinenie (Connection)” which gave a name to this village appeared on the site of the station.
Urik is the name of the river and the village in theIrkutsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name came from Buryat word “uurag” – milk of a just calved cow. The origin of this word is related to Buryat stock-raising everyday life. It is quite possible that the name comes from Evenkis word “urikit”- a nomads camp. Urikovskaya Sloboda (Urik’s settlement) was founded in 1673 near the Urik River, a tributary of the Oka River.
Usolye-Sibirskoe is a name of a town of the Usolsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name comes from salt springs on the shore of the Angara River near the town , i.e. near “sol’’ (salt). Salt wall was started in the second part of the 19th century on the Varnichnyi Island. The town was known as Usolye until 1940. The word “Sibirskoye” was added to differ from another Usolye town located in Perm Region.
Ust-Ilim is the name of the village in the Bratsky District of Irkutsk Region. This name has been very popular. The first Ust-Ilim settlement near the inflow of the Ilim and Angara Rivers was marked on the map in the 17th century.
Ust-Kut, a town of the Ust-Kutsky District of Irkutsk Region is located at the mouth of the Kuta River. The first settlement was founded for salt wall and making ploughed fields on the right shore of the Kuta River near Kutsky Ostrog (fortress) by Khabarov Y.P. The settlement officially received town status in 1954.
Ust-Orda, a village of the Ust-Udinsky District of Irkutsk Region, is located at the mouth of the Uda River. After creation of the Bratsk Reservoir this village (already known as “New Uda”) was moved to another location on the high shore of the Bratsk Sea above the valley of the Angara River. When the old Ust-Uda village went down to the bottom of the sea, the name of the village remained the same.
Ust-Ordynsky, a worker's settlement, is located at the mouth of the Ordynka River. The settlement had been named Khuzhir (“saline, saline-alkali soil” in Buryat) until 1937. Here soils are strongly salted. The land is covered with white coating of salt in dry weather. There was the Ust-Ordynskaya postal station consisting of one yard at the beginning of the 19th century. This station was called “Shved”.because it was carried by a Swedish prisoner of war.
Ushakovka is the name of the river, a tributary of the Angara River which was named after merchant Ivan Ushakov who built the Ushakovskaya watermill on the Ida River at the end of the 17th century.
Uyan is the name of the village of the Kuytunsky District of Irkutsk Region. Its name came from the expression “at Jan’s” (at means “u” in Russian). There, on the shore of the Oka River, settled Jan, a Polish exile. A lot of travellers often stayed at his house. The expression “was at Jan’s house”, “spent the night at Jan’s house”, “at Jan’s” was rooted. And village called Uyan appeared on this site.
Talniki is a name for many settlements deriving from word “tal” (willow). “Talnik” means willow underbrush, shrubbery in the floodplain of rivers.
Tangui is a village of the Bratsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from Buryat word “tangut” (a name of a Buryat clan). The main population of this clan lives in the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. It is evident that they moved to the west from the Alarsky District in the past. There was Russian village Tunguevskaya consisted of three farm homesteads in 1723.
Tanguty, Uzur-Tangut (root Tanguty), Urda-Tangut (southern Tanguty), Upper Tangut are villages of the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from a tribal name of Buryats of Tangut clan
Tashkai is a village of the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. The locals think the name comes from Russian verb “taskat’” (to carry), because the Olkhon Buryats carried their products and other goods into this site for the Olkhon Fair held in the Bazarnaya Bay, on the opposite shore of the Olkhonskiye Vorota (the Olkhon’s Gates) Strait . Turkic word “tash” means stone and “kai” means rock. This is true that there are a lot of high rocks in this place of the the Olkhonskiye Vorota (the Olkhon’s Gates) Strait .
Tayshet is a town of the Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name comes from Ket words “ta” (cold) and “shet” (water or river).
Tayura is a river, a tributary of the Lena River and a village of the Ust-Kutsky District of Irkutsk Region . There was Tayurskaya village named after F. Erofeev, a sone of Tayursky in 1699. There were three farm homesteads in 1723 at this village.
Tazheran is a stow, the Tazheranskaya steppe in the continental part of the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region The name came from Buryat word “tazheran” (a place for summer migration).
Toynik are big and small islands in the Maloe More. The name derives from Buryat word “toynog” (knee-cap). These rocky islands are very small and emerge above water like a knee-cap.
Tofalariya is a territory in the Western Sayan Mountains in the Nizhneudinsky District of Irkutsk Region where Tofs or Tofalars (distorted self-designation from “duba”, “tuba’ or “tuva” (people)) live. They were formerly known as karagas, “black gooses” (totems of a Tof’s clan) before the October Revolution. Tofalars think this name is offensive. They are Turkic-speaking people.
Tolstyi is a high, massive and rocky cape which runs out into the Angara River near Ust-Ilim and makes a narrowing of the riverbed where the Ust-Ilim hydro-electric power station is located. The cape looks like the Pursei Cape in the Padunsky Narrowing of the Angara River where the Bratsk hydro-electric power station is located.
Travyanistaya is a mountain of the Khamar-Daban range located southward from Utulik at a height of more than 1000 metres above sea level. There are a lot of Alpine meadows which are less common on the Khamar-Daban Range.
Trekhgolovyi is a bald mountain, the highest peak of the Primorsky Range located at a height of 2875 metres above sea level. There are three peaks well-seen from Lake Baikal.
Triangulyatorov Peak is 2875 metres high located at the head of the Uda River in the Eastern Sayan Mountains. The name derives from word “triangulation”, determining the properties of a topological space made by geodesists-topographers.
Tulun is a town of the Tulunsky District of Irkutsk Region . It is considered that the name derives from Burayt word “tulam” (leather bag). Tulun was founded in the second half of the 18th century as a village in the Iya valley. With the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the early 20th century, the town grew into an important trade centre. The town was administrated as a town between 1922 and 1924, before being granted town status permanently in 1927.
Tumyrbash is a town and an area in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsky Region. The name comes from Buryat words “tumer” (iron) and “abakha or abash” (to take) i.e a place used for taking iron. There is an ironstone deposite mined in the 18th century for the iron melting works owned by a Irkutsk merchant and manufacturer Lanin. According to legends the Buryats used the deposit for home iron melting before Russians.
Turuka is a river and a tributary of the Lena River and a village of the Ust-Kutsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name comes from Evenki word “turuke” (salt). There is a salt deposit on the right shore of the Kuta River, not far from the Turuka River. It was opened and started salt walling by a famous and adventurous Russian path-finder Y.P. Khabarov in 1639.
Tyrgetui is an ulus (an inhabited locality type of Buryats) of the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name comes from Buryat word “terge” (cart). A cart was a new mode of transport for Buryats. A lot of Buryat names are connected with new economic innovations of Buryat life.
Tyret’ is a village of the Zalarinsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name “Tyret’” derives from the name of Buryat clan “terte”. Buryats of Terte clan came from Mongolia to the Tunkinskaya Valley in the 17th century and have been started to live there since that time.
Sagan-Maryan is a cape in the north-west of lake Baikal. The name means “White glade”. The cape is covered by green grass and protruding white rock exposures. There are a lot of toponyms with Buryat adjective “sagaan” (white) e.g. “Sagaan-Nur”- “White lake”, “Sagaan-Zhaldai”-“White ravine”, “Sagaan-Khada”-“White mountain’ and etc.
Sakhyurta a village of the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from Buryat word “sakhyuur” (flint), “sakhyuurta” (flinty). The name means a site used by Buryats for fire production.
Sayan, Eastern Sayan, Western Sayan are mountains in the south of Siberia named after Turkic-speaking tribes Sayans lived at the head of the Yenisei River and assimilated to Tuvas. Firstly, ethnicon “Sayans” was given to a small ridge in the 17th century. It was likely to be the Sayan Ridge. Then, it was given to the all mountain system from Altai to Cisbaikalia.
Serdtse (Heart) is a high altitude lake on the Khamar-Daban Range. The lake is hidden at the mountain bottom and named because of its shape, the shape of heart. This is the most favourite place of tourists here, on the Khamar-Daban Range.
Shaloty is a village and stow in the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region; Shelotyi is a village in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region and the Shulutyi ridge is a mountaing range of the Eastern Sayan Mountains and others. All these names derive from the Buryat word “shuluun” (stone), “shuluuta” (stony). All thes uluses (inhabited locality types of Buryats) are located near rock explosures. The correct transcription is “Shulutyi”.
Shaman, Shamanka, Shamanova is a village and stow in many districts. Ihe name derives from the Evenki word “shaman” (wizard, sacrificer). Buryats-shamanists used to live in these areas, so Russians started to call these places as shamanistic places. The Evenki name “shaman” extended over other sainted and prayer places of non-Russian inhabitants of Eastern Siberia anf the Far East.
Shaman Stone is located at the mouth of the Angara River. The shaman Cape on Lake Baikal, the Saman Rift on the Angara River and others are the most significant plces where Buryats-shamanists held prayer meetings. Shamanists always chose clean, beautiful pine or birch forests and picturesque high shores of rivers and lakes. All these places were regarded as sacred, untouchable, protected places. But non-believers scornfully called them shamanistic places.
Shanai is a village of the Tulunsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name came from Buryat word “shana”(river bend), because the Buryat ulus (inhabited locality type of Buryats) was located in the bend of the Iya river. In 1948 there were two families of Buryats.
Sharagol, Sharagul are villages in the Zalarinsky District of Irkutsk Region and the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region; Sheragul is a village in the Tulunsky District of Irkutsk Region. The names derive from Buryat words “shara” (yellow)and “gol” (river, valley, ), the mixed word “sharagol” (yellow valley). The wrong transcription is Sheragul’, Sharagulus.
Shara-Togot is a stow and a village of the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from Buryat word “shara-togod” (place of yellow flowers). This stow is covered by a carpet of yellow flowers, crowfoots, in the first part of summer.
Sheberta is a village of the Nizhneudinsky District of Irkutsk Region. “Sheber” is translated as “thickset, heavy bed” from Buryat.
Shebetui is a cape and a village in the Olkhonsky District of Irkutsk Region. The name derives from Buryat word “shebee” (fence). This rocky, unscalable cape was separated from the land by stony wall “shebee”. Such stony defences are widely spread on the western shore of Lake Baikal, the Olkhon Island, near Baikalskoe village and in other places. Walls are composed of laminated stone without cementation up to 3 metres high, some hundreds metres long. It is considered that these constructions were built by ancient tribes Turks – kurykan lived in Cisbaikalia before the Buryats. Today there are only ruins of constructions.
Shelekhov a town in theIrkutsky District of Irkutsk Region. It was named after a Russian explorer, seafarer and merchant Grigory Shelikhov (1747 – 1795) founded the first permanent Russian settlement on Kodiak Island in 1784 and in other places of Russian Alaska.
Shestakovo is an urban-type settlement in the Nizhneilimsky District of Irkutsk Region named after a dowser Shestashka Korshunov.
Shitkino is an urban-type settlement in the Tayshetsky District of Irkutsk Region. The word came from “shet”(water, river), then turned into “shit” which gave the name of the Shitka River and Shitkino settlement.
Shunta ] is the name of the ulus (the inhabited locality type of Buryats) in the Bokhansky District of Irkutsk Region and the ulus in the Shuntoi stow of the Alarsky District of Irkutsk Region. This name comes from the Buryat word “shaneten, shenetete” (larch tree). Today there is no larch forest, there are only fields and birch groves Siberia is historic and geographic area extends within Asian part of Russia.There are offered a lot of discrepant explanations of the origin of the word “Siberia”. But the origin of the word “Siberia” remains cryptic until now. The first mention about Siberia is contained in the “Secret History of the Mongols” at the beginning of the 13th century. The legendary said that in the Year of the Rabbit, 1207, the forces of Chingisids conquered all “forest peoples” including the Shibirs who lived in the north from the Altai and the west from the Angara River. This name was mentioned as Ibir, Sibir, Shibir in “Rashid ad-Din’s (1246 – 1318) Chronicles” about the southern and little-known part of Western Siberia included under this name in the Golden Horde of Dzhuchi or Jochi Khan a hundred years later. The Golden Horde mouldered away at the end of the 15th century and the Tatar semi-feudal state, the Khanate of Sibir, was formed. The capital of the Khanate was Kyshlak, a town with the Tatar name in the 16th century. But the more ancient name of this town was Isker- Sibir. The town is not far from modern Tobolsk now. This settlement was founded by the Khantyi tribes belonged to the Finno-Ugric language family in the 11- 12th centuries. According to legends of Tobolsk Tatars there was Sybyr tribes lived near the Middle Irtysh River before the Tatars came there. That ancient people were likely to belong to the Finno-Ugric language family, but under the influence of any social reasons, most probably under oppression by the Tatars they were assimilated leaving behind only the name “Sybyr” or “Sibir’”. So it should be recognized that the name “Sibir’” is linguistic legacy of a Finno-Ugric tribe lived in the south of Western Siberia before the Tartar Mongol horde came there. Attempts to explain the origin of the word from Mongolian “shibir”(bog) or Russian “sivir” (north) are not scientifically established.
Smolenskoe is a village of the Irkutsky District of Irkutsk Region. It is considered that the name came from the past occupation of the local population - resinous wood distillation (“smolokurenie” in Russian). resinous wood distillation makers, “smolyagi” in Russian, lived there, so the area was called Smolyaga and, then, Smolenshhina. Another opinion is that according to historic documents the origin of the name came from the name of Mitka Smolensky exiled in the Irkutsky Ostrog (fortress) in the seventies of the 17th century became a farmer. Another version is that there is the zimovye (winter quarters) of the Smolenskiye on the old map of Remezovo village. That family was likely to be a smolyaga (resinous wood distillation maker) and built Smolenshhina.
Snezhnaya is a river, a tributary of Lake Baikal. There is a big amount of precipitation in the basin of this river and on the whole northern slope of the Khamar-Daban Range. It snows 5-6 times as much there than in the north-western shore of Lake Baikal. Snow early drops out in autumn and slowly dissolves in summer in high watersheds of this river. These snowy peaks are well seen from the shore of Lake Baikal. Such snowy peaks are widely spread in other mauntains of Cisbaikalia. There is the “Warm lakes on the Snezhnaya River” recreation centre.
Sukhovskaya is an urban-type settlement of subordination of Angarsk. The mane derives from Buryat word “sokhee” (a waterlogged woody and shrubby stow) because of a waterlogged woods and shrubs around the settlement.
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